Tugas Softskill 3
Nama : Khusniana Pratiwi
NPM : 11209142
Kelas : 4EA14
A noun phrase is a phrase which includes a noun (also called head) and optionally modifiers.
Love is a beautiful feeling. (Love is a noun phrase without modifiers. However, a beautiful feeling is a noun phrase that includes a noun, feeling, and the determiner a and the adjective beautiful).
My house is over there. (My house is a noun phrase which consists of the noun house and a modifier – the possessive adjective my)
Possible noun modifiers
A noun phrase may optionally contain noun modifiers. If these modifiers are placed before the noun they are called pre-modifiers. However, if they are placed after the noun, they are called post-modifiers. Possible noun modifiers include the following:
– articles (the, a),
– demonstratives (this, that)
– numerals (two, five, etc.)
– possessives (my, their, etc.)
– quantifiers (some, many, etc.).
In English, determiners are usually placed before the noun;
2. adjectives (the delicious food)
3. complements, in the form of a prepositional phrase (such as: the student of physics), or a That-clause (the idea that the world is a small village )
Functions of a noun phrase
Noun phrases can function as subjects, objects:
– That sophisticated woman is beautiful. (That sophisticated woman is a noun phrase that functions as a subject.)
– I like the book that you bought. (the book that you bought is a noun phrase that functions as an object.)
What are determiners?
A determiner is used to modify a noun. It indicates reference to something specific or something of a particular type. This function is usually performed by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.
Determiners vs pronouns
Determiners are followed by a noun.
- The man
- This book
- Some people
Subject pronouns ( I , you , he , etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, etc.) cannot be determiners because they can never be followed by a noun.
Countable and uncountable nouns
You will learn about countable and uncountable nouns. but before you continue the lesson, look at the following chart and study the nouns.
Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number- they can be counted. (That’s why they are called “countable nouns”).
1 friend, 2 friends, 3 friends…
1 book, 2 books, 3 books…
Countable nouns take many.
100 friends – many friends
Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number- they can’t be counted. (That’s why they are called “uncountable nouns”).
I have a lot of money. (Not 1000 money)
You say I drink a lot of milk. (Not 5 milk)
Uncountable nouns take much.
100 money – much money
Note: Of course you can count money, milk, meat; but then you would use the currency, liter, kilo, glass,…and say that you have got:
- 5 euros or dollars… (but not 5 money).
- 2 liters, pints, glasses… of milk (but not 2 milk)
- 3 kilos… of meat (but not 3 meat)
- 10 bottles of mineral water… (but not 10 mineral water)
Type of Determiners
What is an article?
Basically, articles are either definite or indefinite. They combine to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.
- The definite article is the.
- The indefinite article is a / an.
The indefinite article a or an:
The article a / an is used when we don’t specify the things or people we are talking about:
- I met a friend.
- I work in a factory in New York.
- I borrowed a pencil from a passenger sitting next to me.
The indefinite article a is used before a consonant sound:
- a dog.
- a pilot
- a teacher.
- a university
Although ‘university’ starts with the vowel ‘u’, it is not pronounced as such. It is pronounced as a consonant sound.
The indefinite article an is used before a vowel sound:
- an engineer.
- an elephant.
- an athlete
The definite article the:
It’s used when the speaker talks about a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know.
- The car over there is fast.
- The president of the United States is giving a speech tonight.
When we speak of something or someone for the first time we use a or an, the next time we repeat that object we use the definite article the.
- I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms.
- I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good.
1. Do not use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as “The United States”.
- He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier.
- They live in Northern British Columbia.
- They climbed Mount Everest.
2. we do not normally use an article with plurals and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general.:
- He writes books.
- She likes sweets.
- Do you like jazz music?
- She ate bread with butter in the morning.
What are demonstratives?
Demonstratives are words that show which person or thing is being referred to. In the sentence:
‘This is my brother’,
‘this’ is a demonstrative
The demonstratives in English are this, that, these, and those
Demonstrative pronouns vs demonstrative adjectives
A distinction must be made between demonstrative adjectives (or demonstrative determiners) and demonstrative pronouns (or independent demonstratives).
A demonstrative adjective modifies a noun:
This apple is good. I like those houses. (This modifies ‘apple’ and those modifies ‘houses’)
A demonstrative pronoun stands on its own, replacing rather than modifying a noun:
This is good. I like those. (This and those don’t modify any nouns they stand alone and replace other nouns)
Use of demonstratives
Demonstratives differ according to:
- distance: near or far,
- or number: singular or plural.
Here are the main distinctions:
- This modifies or refers to singular nouns that are near to the speaker.
- That modifies or refers to singular nouns that are far from the speaker.
- These modifies or refers to plural nouns that are near to the speaker.
- Those modifies or refers to plural nouns that are far from the speaker.
What are possessive adjectives?
Possessive adjectives – my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their – modify the noun following it in order to show possession.
- I’ll get my bag.
- Is this your luggage?
Possessive adjectives are often confused with possessive pronouns.
- Your bike is blue. (your is an adjective which modifies bike)
- Mine is yellow. (mine is a pronoun which functions as the subject of the verb is)
- Why didn’t you clean your room?
(your modifies the noun room)
- Mary doesn’t like her dress.
(her modifies the noun dress)
- The chameleon can change its color.
(its modifies the noun color)
Things to remember:
1. Possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns.
- This is your (possessive adjective) book and this is mine (possessive pronoun).
2. its, their are possessive adjectives.
- Its color is beautiful.
- Their car is in their garage.
3. it’s, they’re and there are not possessive adjectives — its is a contraction of it is or it has; they’re is a contraction of they are; there is an adverb of place.
- It’s not my book = It is not my book.
- My house is big. It’s got five bedrooms = It has got five bedrooms.
- Nancy and Alan are from New York. They’re my friends = They are my friends.
- Please, put the chair there. (adverb)
What are quantifiers?
A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity:
‘Some’, ‘many’, ‘a lot of’ and ‘a few’ are examples of quantifiers.
Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
There are some books on the desk
He’s got only a few dollars.
How much money have you got?
There is a large quantity of fish in this river.
He’s got more friends than his sister.
Examples of quantifiers
With Uncountable Nouns
- a little/little/very little *
- a bit (of)
- a great deal of
- a large amount of
- a large quantity of
- not any
- a lot of
- lots of
- plenty of
With Countable Nouns
- a few/few/very few **
- a number (of)
- a large number of
- a great number of
- a majority of
few, very few mean that there is not enough of something.
a few means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.
little, very little mean that there is not enough of something.
a little means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.