The Noun-Phrase

Tugas Softskill 3

Nama : Khusniana Pratiwi

NPM : 11209142

Kelas : 4EA14

The Noun-Phrase

A noun phrase is a phrase which includes a noun (also called head) and optionally modifiers.

Examples:

Love is a beautiful feeling. (Love is a noun phrase without modifiers. However, a beautiful feeling is a noun phrase that includes a noun, feeling, and the determiner a and the adjective beautiful).

My house is over there. (My house is a noun phrase which consists of the noun house and a modifier – the possessive adjective my)

Possible noun modifiers

A noun phrase may optionally contain noun modifiers. If these modifiers are placed before the noun they are called pre-modifiers. However, if they are placed after the noun, they are called post-modifiers. Possible noun modifiers include the following:

1. Determiners

– articles (thea),

– demonstratives (thisthat)

– numerals (twofive, etc.)

– possessives (mytheir, etc.)

– quantifiers (somemany, etc.).

In English, determiners are usually placed before the noun;

2. adjectives (the delicious food)

3. complements, in the form of a prepositional phrase (such as: the student of physics), or a That-clause (the idea  that the world is a small village )

 

Functions of a noun phrase

Noun phrases can function as subjects, objects:

– That sophisticated woman is beautiful. (That sophisticated woman is a noun phrase that functions as a subject.)

– I like the book that you bought. (the book that you bought is a noun phrase that functions as an object.)

What are determiners?

A determiner is used to modify a noun. It indicates reference to something specific or something of a particular type. This function is usually performed by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.

Determiners vs pronouns

Determiners are followed by a noun.

  • The man
  • This book
  • Some people

Subject pronouns ( I , you , he , etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, etc.) cannot be determiners because they can never be followed by a noun.

 

Countable and uncountable nouns

You will learn about countable and uncountable nouns. but before you continue the lesson, look at the following chart and study the nouns.

Countable Uncountable
books money
friends meat
teachers juice
tables milk

Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number- they can be counted. (That’s why they are called “countable nouns”).

Example:

1 friend, 2 friends, 3 friends…
1 book, 2 books, 3 books…

Countable nouns take many.

Example:
100 friends – many friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number- they can’t be counted. (That’s why they are called “uncountable nouns”).

Examples:

I have a lot of money. (Not 1000 money)
You say I drink a lot of milk. (Not 5 milk)

Uncountable nouns take much.

Example:

 100 money – much money

Note: Of course you can count money, milk, meat; but then you would use the currency, liter, kilo, glass,…and say that you have got:

  • 5 euros or dollars… (but not 5 money).
  • 2 liters, pints, glasses… of milk (but not 2 milk)
  • 3 kilos… of meat (but not 3 meat)
  • 10 bottles of mineral water… (but not 10 mineral water)

Type of Determiners

Article

What is an article?

Basically, articles are either definite or indefinite. They combine to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

  • The definite article is the.
  • The indefinite article is a / an.

The indefinite article a or an:

The article a / an is used when we don’t specify the things or people we are talking about:

  • I met a friend.
  • I work in a factory in New York.
  • I borrowed a pencil from a passenger sitting next to me.

The indefinite article a is used before a consonant sound:

  • a dog.
  • a pilot
  • a teacher.
  • a university

NOTE:
Although ‘university’ starts with the vowel ‘u’, it is not pronounced as such. It is pronounced as a consonant sound.

The indefinite article an is used before a vowel sound:

  • an engineer.
  • an elephant.
  • an athlete

The definite article the:

It’s used when the speaker talks about a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know.

  • The car over there is fast.
  • The president of the United States is giving a speech tonight.

When we speak of something or someone for the first time we use a or an, the next time we repeat that object we use the definite article the.

  • I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms.
  • I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good.

No article:

1. Do not use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as “The United States”.

  • He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier.
  • They live in Northern British Columbia.
  • They climbed Mount Everest.

2. we do not normally use an article with plurals and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general.:

  • He writes books.
  • She likes sweets.
  • Do you like jazz music?
  • She ate bread with butter in the morning.

 

Demonstratives

What are demonstratives?

Demonstratives are words that show which person or thing is being referred to. In the sentence:

‘This is my brother’,

‘this’ is a demonstrative

The demonstratives in English are this, that, these, and those

Demonstrative pronouns vs demonstrative adjectives

A distinction must be made between demonstrative adjectives (or demonstrative determiners) and demonstrative pronouns (or independent demonstratives).

A demonstrative adjective modifies a noun:

This apple is good. I like those houses. (This modifies ‘apple’ and those modifies ‘houses’)

A demonstrative pronoun stands on its own, replacing rather than modifying a noun:

This is good. I like those. (This and those don’t modify any nouns they stand alone and replace other nouns)

Use of demonstratives

Demonstratives differ according to:

  • distance: near or far,
  • or number: singular or plural.

Here are the main distinctions:

  • This modifies or refers to singular nouns that are near to the speaker.
  • That modifies or refers to singular nouns that are far from the speaker.
  • These modifies or refers to plural nouns that are near to the speaker.
  • Those modifies or refers to plural nouns that are far from the speaker.

Demonstratives

Singular

Plural

Near

Far

This

That

These

Those

Possessive

What are possessive adjectives?

Possessive adjectives – my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their – modify the noun following it in order to show possession.

Examples:

  • I’ll get my bag.
  • Is this your luggage?

Possessive adjectives are often confused with possessive pronouns.

Examples:

  • Your bike is blue. (your is an adjective which modifies bike)
  • Mine is yellow. (mine is a pronoun which functions as the subject of the verb is)

Examples

Subject Pronouns

I you he she it we you they

Possessive Adjectives

my your his her its our your their

Examples:

  • Why didn’t you clean your room?
    (your modifies the noun room)
  • Mary doesn’t like her dress.
    (her modifies the noun dress)
  • The chameleon can change its color.
    (its modifies the noun color)

Things to remember:

1. Possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns.

  • This is your (possessive adjective) book and this is mine (possessive pronoun).

2. its, their are possessive adjectives.

  • Its color is beautiful.
  • Their car is in their garage.

3. it’s, they’re and there are not possessive adjectives — its is a contraction of it is or it has; they’re is a contraction of they are; there is an adverb of place.

  • It’s not my book = It is not my book.
  • My house is big. It’s got five bedrooms = It has got five bedrooms.
  • Nancy and Alan are from New York. They’re my friends = They are my friends.
  • Please, put the chair there. (adverb)

Review:

Personal pronouns

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns

Object pronouns

I my mine myself me
you your yours yourself you
he his his himself him
she her hers herself her
it its its itself it
we our ours ourselves us
you your yours yourselves you
they their theirs themselves them

Quantifiers

What are quantifiers?

A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity:
‘Some’, ‘many’, ‘a lot of’ and ‘a few’ are examples of quantifiers.

Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

Examples:

There are some books on the desk
He’s got only a few dollars.
How much money have you got?
There is a large quantity of fish in this river.
He’s got more friends than his sister.

Examples of quantifiers

With Uncountable Nouns

  • much
  • a little/little/very little *
  • a bit (of)
  • a great deal of
  • a large amount of
  • a large quantity of

With Both

  • all
  • enough
  • more/most
  • less/least
  • no/none
  • not any
  • some
  • any
  • a lot of
  • lots of
  • plenty of

With Countable Nouns

  • many
  • a few/few/very few **
  • a number (of)
  • several
  • a large number of
  • a great number of
  • a majority of

* NOTE

few, very few mean that there is not enough of something.
a few means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.

** NOTE

little, very little mean that there is not enough of something.
a little means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.

Sumber :

http://www.myenglishpages.com/

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