Dynamics of Positive Thinking

Name : Khusniana Pratiwi

NPM : 11209142

Class : 4EA14

DYNAMICS OF POSITIVE THINKING

 

If you do not know your destination, you will be stranded elsewhere.

Thinking is a mental act to generate ideas. The mind can be negative or positive. Positive thoughts lead to problem-solving behavior. Revealed negative thoughts of justification for the failure or avoidance of problem-solving behavior. People who think negatively called pessimists, while thinking in a positive direction is called an optimist.

Mind is in between the two extremes of autistic and realistic. Autistic mind is driven mainly by the needs, desires, and feelings of your own, while the mind is based primarily on the need for realistic situations objectively. Autistic mind may often be spoiled by self gratification without considering the reality. This type of thinking is a kind of a more primitive modes of thought, the hallmark of the unconscious. This type of mind most clearly manifest in dreams, but allegedly also present as pent up feelings when awake. Jumbled thoughts in people whose mental problems and in normal people, and people who are under the influence of certain drugs describe this activity: the idea is guided solely by the desire for immediate fulfillment of desire regardless of logic, morals, order time , causality, or the demands of external reality. Thinking at this level comply with the pleasure principle (reality principle) search for pleasure and avoidance of pain. Doubt, uncertainty and contradictions have no place in the autistic mind.

Conversely, realistic thinking tends productive aimed at actions or solutions to problems. This type of thinking is the hallmark of preconscious nature and nature awareness. Thinking at this level comply with the principle of the regulation and control reality according to the demands of the outside world behavior. Anticipation over the possibility of changes in the environment and the consequences of an action increases the ability to delay immediate gratification pleasure with abandon and replace it with a long-term action plan that is more appropriate and adaptive.

In order to understand the basis of the thought process, we also need to know the dynamics of behavior. Behavior refers to the pattern of reactions that lead to goals that can be observed objectively. In addition, the behavior also refers to internal processes such as thinking and emotional reactions, which can be observed or inferred from the introspective external behavior.

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The Noun-Phrase

Tugas Softskill 3

Nama : Khusniana Pratiwi

NPM : 11209142

Kelas : 4EA14

The Noun-Phrase

A noun phrase is a phrase which includes a noun (also called head) and optionally modifiers.

Examples:

Love is a beautiful feeling. (Love is a noun phrase without modifiers. However, a beautiful feeling is a noun phrase that includes a noun, feeling, and the determiner a and the adjective beautiful).

My house is over there. (My house is a noun phrase which consists of the noun house and a modifier – the possessive adjective my)

Possible noun modifiers

A noun phrase may optionally contain noun modifiers. If these modifiers are placed before the noun they are called pre-modifiers. However, if they are placed after the noun, they are called post-modifiers. Possible noun modifiers include the following:

1. Determiners

– articles (thea),

– demonstratives (thisthat)

– numerals (twofive, etc.)

– possessives (mytheir, etc.)

– quantifiers (somemany, etc.).

In English, determiners are usually placed before the noun;

2. adjectives (the delicious food)

3. complements, in the form of a prepositional phrase (such as: the student of physics), or a That-clause (the idea  that the world is a small village )

 

Functions of a noun phrase

Noun phrases can function as subjects, objects:

– That sophisticated woman is beautiful. (That sophisticated woman is a noun phrase that functions as a subject.)

– I like the book that you bought. (the book that you bought is a noun phrase that functions as an object.)

What are determiners?

A determiner is used to modify a noun. It indicates reference to something specific or something of a particular type. This function is usually performed by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.

Determiners vs pronouns

Determiners are followed by a noun.

  • The man
  • This book
  • Some people

Subject pronouns ( I , you , he , etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, etc.) cannot be determiners because they can never be followed by a noun.

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Passive Voice

Nama   : Khusniana Pratiwi

NPM   : 11209142

Kelas   : 4EA14

PASSIVE VOICE

Passive voice is a very common phrase used in everyday conversation. In Indonesian, is known sentence with a verb in the beginning like being scolded, beaten, reply, and others used. The composition according to tenses passive sentences, and is formed by using the To Be (am, is, are, was, were, been, being) and coupled with the verb to form III (Past Participle). Notice the Active and Passive sentences following:

Active : The teacher punished him for coming late.

              Guru menghukumnya karena terlambat.

Passive : He was punished by the teacher for coming late.

               Ia dihukum oleh guru karena terlambat.

The following are examples of passive voice sentences in some tenses :

A.   Simple Past Tense

 Subject + was/were + Past Participle

Example

a. English is spoken (by people) all over the world.

Bahasa inggris dibicarakan diseluruh dunia.

b. I am taught English by Mr. Robert.

Saya diajar bahasa inggris oleh Pak Robert

Note : object if the culprit is not necessarily as: by people,by her, by him, by them etc, may be omitted.

Negative :

a. I wasn’t informed about it

Saya tidak diberitahukan tentang hal itu.

b. They were not invited for the meeting.

Mereka tidak diundang untuk pertemuan itu.

Question :

a. Were you invited to attend the meeting ?

Apakah anda diundang untuk menghadiri pertemuan itu ?

b. Yes, I was invited.

Ya, saya diundang.

c. Was he informed about it ?

 Apakah ia diberitahukan tentang hal itu ?

d. No, he was not informed.

Tidak, ia tidak diberitahukan.

B. Simple Present Tense

Subject + am/is/are + Past Participle

Example

a. English is spoken (by people) all over the world.

Bahasa inggris dibicarakan diseluruh dunia.

b. I am taught English by Mr. Robert.

Saya diajar bahasa inggris oleh Pak Robert

Note : object if the culprit is not necessarily as: by people,by her, by him, by them etc, may be omitted.

Negative :

a. French is not spoken all over the world.

Bahasa Perancis tidak dibicarakan di seluruh dunia

b. I am not taught grammar by my teacher.

Saya tidak diajar tata bahasa oleh guru saya.

Question :

a. Is this book written by Mr. Hilman ?

Apakah buku ini ditulis oleh Tuan Hilman ?

b. Yes, it is written by Mr.Hilman.

Ya, buku itu ditulis oleh Tuan Hilman.

c. Are you taught by the teacher about Passive Voice ?

Apakah anda diajar oleh guru tentang kalimat pasif ?

d. No, I am not taught about Passive Voice.

Tidak, saya tidak diajar tentang kalimat pasif.

C.    Present Perfect Tense

Subject + have/has been + Past Participle

Example

a. The robbers have been caught by the police.

Perampok-perampok itu telah ditangkap polisi.

b. The report has been finished by the secretary.

Laporan itu telah diselesaikan oleh sekretaris.

Negative :

a. It hasn’t been known yet, who will attend the meeting.

Belum diketahui siapa yang akan menghadiri pertemuan.

b. The case hasn’t been reported to the police.

Perkara itu belum dilaporkan kepada polisi.

Question :

a. Has the letter been sent ?

Sudahkah surat itu dikirim ?

b. Yes, it has been sent.

Ya, surat itu sudah dikirim.

c. Have the victims been taken to the hospital.

Sudahkah para korban dibawa ke rumah sakit ?

d. No, not yet, they haven’t been taken to the hospital.

Belum, mereka belum dibawa ke rumah sakit.

D.    Present Continuous Tense

Subject + am/is/are + being + Past Participle

Example

a. The letter is being typed by the secretary.

Surat itu sedang diketik oleh sekretaris

b. My watch is being repaired.

Jam tangan saya sedang diperbaiki.

Negative :

a. It is not being done.

Hal itu sedang tidak dikerjakan.

b. The house is not being palated.

Rumah itu sedang tidak dicat.

Question :

a. Is the matter being discussed at the meeting ?

Apakah hal itu sedang dibahas dalam pertemuan ?

b. Yes, it is being discussed.

Ya, hal itu sedang dibahas.

c. Is you new house being built ?

Apakah rumahmu yang baru sedang dibangun ?

d. No, it is not being built.

Tidak, tidak sedang dibangun.

E.     Simple Future Tense

Subject + shall/will be + Past Participle

Example

a. The contract will be signed next week.

Kontrak itu akan ditanda-tangani minggu depan.

b. His house will be sold.

Rumahnya akan dijual.

Negative :

a. This letter will not be sent tomorrow.

Surat ini tidak akan dikirim besok.

b. This book will not be published.

Buku ini tidak akan diterbitkan.

Question :

a. Will this house be painted blue ?

Apakah rumah ini akan dicat warna biru ?

b. Yes, it will be painted blue.

Ya, rumah ini akan dicat biru.

d. Will this house be sold ?

Apakah rumahnya akan dijual ?

e. No, it won’t be sold.

Tidak, rumahnya tidak akan dijual.

F.     Passive Voice With Auxiliaries

Subject + Auxiliaries + be + Past Participle

Example

a. That work must be finished today.

Pekerjaan ini harus diselesaikan hari ini.

b. This letter may be sent now.

Surat ini boleh dikirim sekarang.

c. This book can be bought at every book-store.

Buku ini dapat dibeli di setiap toko buku.

d. This plant should be watered once a week.

Tanaman ini harus diairi sekali seminggu.

Passive Voice With Words Question

a. By whom has the money been stolen ? (Perfect)

Oleh siapa uang itu dicuri ?

b. It has been stolen by one of the servants.

Uang itu dicuri oleh salah seorang pembantu.

a. When was this house built ? (Past)

Kapan rumah ini dibangun ?

b. This house was built in 1995.

Rumah ini dibangun tahun 1995.

a. Where will the meeting be held ? (Future)

Di mana pertemuan itu akan diadakan ?

b. It will be held in room 10.

Pertemuan itu akan diadakan di kamar 10.

a. What is being built near your house ? (Continuous)

Apa yang sedang dibangun dekat rumahmu ?

b. A hotel is being built near my house.

Sebuah hotel sedang dibangun dekat rumah saya.

Source :

Lado, M. J, “Practical Complete English Grammar”, Titik terang, Jakarta, 2008

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian) adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi atau mungkin tidak terjadi seperti yang diharapkan. Kalimat pengandaian terdiri atas dua bagian, yaitu main clause (induk kalimat) dan if clause (anak kalimat). Dalam if clause terkandung syarat-syarat yang harus dipenuhi agar keadaan seperti terkandung dalam main clause dapat terwujud. Oleh karena itu, conditional sentences disebut juga kalimat bersyarat. Conditional Sentences atau kalimat pengandaian terdiri dari dua jenis yaitu real conditional (nyata) dan unreal/ contrary to fact (tidak nyata).

Conditional sentences pada umumnya memiliki cirri-ciri sebagai berikut :

  1. Digunakannya kata if dalam anak kalimat (subordinate clause). Karena clause ini diawali oleh if maka disebut if clause
  2. Digunakannya modal auxiliary, seperti will, can, may, must, would, could, might, etc. pada pokok kalimat (main clause).

Ada beberapa tipe conditional sentences, yaitu :

(1)   Type 1 : Future Conditional

Conditional type  1 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) memiliki kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya realistik untuk dipenuhi di masa depan.

Rumus Conditional Type 1

If + Simple present, will + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

Will + bare infinitive + if + Simple present

Negatif If + Condition

Rumus : If…not dapat digantikan dengan unless.

Contoh Conditional Type 1

Kalimat

Contoh conditional type 1 dengan koma

Contoh conditional type 1 tanpa koma

(+)

If I have free time, I will go swimming. I will go swimming if I have free time.
If the bell rings, I’ll go home. I’ll go home if the bell rings.

(-)

If you do not finish your homework, your teacher will be angry. Your teacher will be angry if you do not finish your homework.
If he doesn’t come, I won’t be angry. I won’t be angry if he doesn’t come.
Unless he comes, I will not be angry. I will not be angry unless he comes.
If he comes, I won’t be angry. I won’t be angry if he comes.

(?)

If they invite you, will you come? Will you come if they invite you?

(2)   Type 2 : Present Conditional

Conditional type 2 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) tidak memiliki atau hanya sedikit kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi dimasa sekarang (present unreal situation) atau condition-nya sulit untuk dipenuhi di masa depan (unlikely to happen).

Rumus Conditional Type 2

If + Simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

would/could/might + bare infinitive + if + simple past

Negatif If + Condition

Rumus : If…not dapat digantikan dengan unless

Were menggantikan Was

Pada conditional type 2, were digunakan menggantikan was meskipun subjek yang digunakan merupakan pronoun : she, he, it, maupun kata benda tunggal. Hal ini untuk menunjukkan bahwa pengandaiannya benar-benar hanya berupa khayalan semata karena tidak condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi (present unreal situation).

if + S + were, would (could/might) + bare infinitive

Contoh Conditional Type 2

Kalimat

Contoh Conditional type 2 dengan koma

Contoh Conditional type 2 tanpa koma

Keterangan

(+)

If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all day.
(Jika besok hujan, saya akan tidur sepanjang hari.)
He would sleep all day if it rained tomorrow. but I don’t have much hope it will rain
(tapi saya tidak punya cukup keyakinan bahwa besok akan hujan)
If Nisa studied hard, she would pass.
(Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia akan lulus.)
Nisa would pass if she studied hard. but Nisa doesn’t study hard
(tapi Nisa tidak belajar keras.)
If I had much money, I would buy a sport car.
(Jika saya punya banyak uang, saya akan membeli sebuah mobil sport.)
I would buy a sport car if I had much money. but I don’t have much money
(tapi saya tidak punya banyak uang)
If I were a millionaire, I would donate my money to charity.
(Jika saya seorang millionaire, saya akan mendonasikan uang saya untuk amal.)
I would donate my money to charity if I were a millionaire. but I’m not a millionaire
(tapi saya bukan seorang milioner)

(-)

If Nisa didn’t study hard, she wouldn’t be passed.
(Jika Nisa tidak belajar keras, dia tidak akan lulus.)
Nisa wouldn’t be passed if she didn’t study hard. but Nisa studies hard
(tapi Nisa belajar keras)
If Nisa studied hard, she wouldn’t fail.
(Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia tidak akan gagal.)
Nisa wouldn’t fail if she studied hard.

If Nisa didn’t study hard, she would fail.
atau
Unless Nisa studied hard, she would fail.
(Jika Nisa tidak belajar keras, dia akan gagal.)
Nisa would fail If she didn’t study hard.
atau
Nisa would fail unless she studied hard.

If I were a millionaire, I wouldn’t donate my money to charity. I wouldn’t donate my money to charity if I were a millionaire.

(?)

If Nisa didn’t study hard, would she fail? Would Nisa fail if she didn’t study hard?

If I had much money, would I buy a sport car? Would I buy a sport car if I had much money?

If I were a millionaire, would I donate my money to charity? Would I donate my money to charity If I were a millionaire?

(3)   Type 3 : Past Conditional

Conditional type 3 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) tidak ada kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya harus sudah dipenuhi di masa lalu.

Rumus Conditional Type 3

If + past perfect, would/should/could/might + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

would/should/could/might + bare infinitive + if + past perfect

 

Contoh Conditional Type 3

Kalimat

Contoh Conditional type 3 dengan koma

Contoh Conditional type 3 tanpa koma

(+)

If you had remembered to invite me, I would have attended your party. I would have attended your party if you had remembered to invite me.

(-)

If the waitress had been careful, she wouldn’t have broke many plates. She wouldn’t have broke many plates if the waitress had been careful.

(?)

If he had asked for forgiveness, would you have forgived him? Would you have forgived him if he had asked for forgiveness?

 

Sumber :

http://fachmiulilmaulana.blogspot.com/2012/03/conditional-sentence.html

http://www.wordsmile.com/