Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian) adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi atau mungkin tidak terjadi seperti yang diharapkan. Kalimat pengandaian terdiri atas dua bagian, yaitu main clause (induk kalimat) dan if clause (anak kalimat). Dalam if clause terkandung syarat-syarat yang harus dipenuhi agar keadaan seperti terkandung dalam main clause dapat terwujud. Oleh karena itu, conditional sentences disebut juga kalimat bersyarat. Conditional Sentences atau kalimat pengandaian terdiri dari dua jenis yaitu real conditional (nyata) dan unreal/ contrary to fact (tidak nyata).

Conditional sentences pada umumnya memiliki cirri-ciri sebagai berikut :

  1. Digunakannya kata if dalam anak kalimat (subordinate clause). Karena clause ini diawali oleh if maka disebut if clause
  2. Digunakannya modal auxiliary, seperti will, can, may, must, would, could, might, etc. pada pokok kalimat (main clause).

Ada beberapa tipe conditional sentences, yaitu :

(1)   Type 1 : Future Conditional

Conditional type  1 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) memiliki kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya realistik untuk dipenuhi di masa depan.

Rumus Conditional Type 1

If + Simple present, will + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

Will + bare infinitive + if + Simple present

Negatif If + Condition

Rumus : If…not dapat digantikan dengan unless.

Contoh Conditional Type 1

Kalimat

Contoh conditional type 1 dengan koma

Contoh conditional type 1 tanpa koma

(+)

If I have free time, I will go swimming. I will go swimming if I have free time.
If the bell rings, I’ll go home. I’ll go home if the bell rings.

(-)

If you do not finish your homework, your teacher will be angry. Your teacher will be angry if you do not finish your homework.
If he doesn’t come, I won’t be angry. I won’t be angry if he doesn’t come.
Unless he comes, I will not be angry. I will not be angry unless he comes.
If he comes, I won’t be angry. I won’t be angry if he comes.

(?)

If they invite you, will you come? Will you come if they invite you?

(2)   Type 2 : Present Conditional

Conditional type 2 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) tidak memiliki atau hanya sedikit kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi dimasa sekarang (present unreal situation) atau condition-nya sulit untuk dipenuhi di masa depan (unlikely to happen).

Rumus Conditional Type 2

If + Simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

would/could/might + bare infinitive + if + simple past

Negatif If + Condition

Rumus : If…not dapat digantikan dengan unless

Were menggantikan Was

Pada conditional type 2, were digunakan menggantikan was meskipun subjek yang digunakan merupakan pronoun : she, he, it, maupun kata benda tunggal. Hal ini untuk menunjukkan bahwa pengandaiannya benar-benar hanya berupa khayalan semata karena tidak condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi (present unreal situation).

if + S + were, would (could/might) + bare infinitive

Contoh Conditional Type 2

Kalimat

Contoh Conditional type 2 dengan koma

Contoh Conditional type 2 tanpa koma

Keterangan

(+)

If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all day.
(Jika besok hujan, saya akan tidur sepanjang hari.)
He would sleep all day if it rained tomorrow. but I don’t have much hope it will rain
(tapi saya tidak punya cukup keyakinan bahwa besok akan hujan)
If Nisa studied hard, she would pass.
(Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia akan lulus.)
Nisa would pass if she studied hard. but Nisa doesn’t study hard
(tapi Nisa tidak belajar keras.)
If I had much money, I would buy a sport car.
(Jika saya punya banyak uang, saya akan membeli sebuah mobil sport.)
I would buy a sport car if I had much money. but I don’t have much money
(tapi saya tidak punya banyak uang)
If I were a millionaire, I would donate my money to charity.
(Jika saya seorang millionaire, saya akan mendonasikan uang saya untuk amal.)
I would donate my money to charity if I were a millionaire. but I’m not a millionaire
(tapi saya bukan seorang milioner)

(-)

If Nisa didn’t study hard, she wouldn’t be passed.
(Jika Nisa tidak belajar keras, dia tidak akan lulus.)
Nisa wouldn’t be passed if she didn’t study hard. but Nisa studies hard
(tapi Nisa belajar keras)
If Nisa studied hard, she wouldn’t fail.
(Jika Nisa belajar keras, dia tidak akan gagal.)
Nisa wouldn’t fail if she studied hard.

If Nisa didn’t study hard, she would fail.
atau
Unless Nisa studied hard, she would fail.
(Jika Nisa tidak belajar keras, dia akan gagal.)
Nisa would fail If she didn’t study hard.
atau
Nisa would fail unless she studied hard.

If I were a millionaire, I wouldn’t donate my money to charity. I wouldn’t donate my money to charity if I were a millionaire.

(?)

If Nisa didn’t study hard, would she fail? Would Nisa fail if she didn’t study hard?

If I had much money, would I buy a sport car? Would I buy a sport car if I had much money?

If I were a millionaire, would I donate my money to charity? Would I donate my money to charity If I were a millionaire?

(3)   Type 3 : Past Conditional

Conditional type 3 adalah kalimat pengandaian yang digunakan ketika result / consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) tidak ada kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya harus sudah dipenuhi di masa lalu.

Rumus Conditional Type 3

If + past perfect, would/should/could/might + bare infinitive

Atau rumus tanpa menggunakan tanda koma :

would/should/could/might + bare infinitive + if + past perfect

 

Contoh Conditional Type 3

Kalimat

Contoh Conditional type 3 dengan koma

Contoh Conditional type 3 tanpa koma

(+)

If you had remembered to invite me, I would have attended your party. I would have attended your party if you had remembered to invite me.

(-)

If the waitress had been careful, she wouldn’t have broke many plates. She wouldn’t have broke many plates if the waitress had been careful.

(?)

If he had asked for forgiveness, would you have forgived him? Would you have forgived him if he had asked for forgiveness?

 

Sumber :

http://fachmiulilmaulana.blogspot.com/2012/03/conditional-sentence.html

http://www.wordsmile.com/

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